Research of Cookies containing cucumber Powder
In Korea, where eating habits are changing to westernization, the death rate is increasing due to diseases that were uncommon in the past, and chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure are becoming social problems due to increased consumption of animal foods such as high protein and high fat. This has led to a high interest in health and the active study of healthy ingredients (Asano, Oseki, Tomioka, Kizu, & Matsui, 1994; Han, Woo, Lee & Kang, 2006). Dietary changes are desperately needed to prevent and treat these chronic diseases, and various forms of food are introduced, raising interest in the development of health-functioning foods (Park & Han, 2003), and active in the ingredients and functions of plant resources (Choi, Do & Choi, 2002; Cha, Jeong, Hee & Kim, 2002). Various studies have been conducted on convenient cookies manufactured by adding functional materials, and cookies manufactured by adding noni (Kim & Lee, 2015), turmeric (Choi, Kim, & Mo, 2014), you (Moon & Choi, 2014), and wool (Choi, 2009). Sanguisorba Officinalis L is a perennial herb of the family Rosaceae, commonly found in grasslands such as mountains and fields in Korea, other than China, Japan, and Siberia. Rubbing leaves or stems are called cucumber grass, which is oval in shape and round in tip (Lee et al., 2010). Leaves from roots have long, small leaves with 5–11 long, long layers, and small leaves have a long oval shape with serrated edges (Rhim, 2013; Lee et al., 2004). The reddish-colored flower is a water-colored flower that blooms at the end of a long branch between June and September and stands straight at 1–3 cm in length and 6–8 mm in diameter, characterized by no petals and blooming from top to bottom (Park, Koh, Kim, & Lim, 2004). Young leaves are used for food and roots are used as hemostatic agents (Rhim, 2013), and in biopharmaceuticals, the roots of cucumber grass are called ground milk and are used to treat hemostasis, detoxification, keratoma, postpartum abdominal pain, and menstrual excesses (Park, Koh, Kim, Park, & Lim, 2004). Roots and root stems contain 12–20% tannins and more tannins in the stem than in the root (Choi & Rhim 2013; Tanaka, Nonaka, & Nishioka, 1983). Major components of cucumber grass include saponin dividends containing acid guisorbin, protein, policy acid, sanguisorbic acid, kaempferol, gallic acid, elastic acid, catechin, etc., and tannins and leaves. Although many studies have been conducted mainly on the physiological activities of cucumber grasses (Doh, 2010), antioxidants (Park et al., 2004), anti-allergies (Shin, Lee, & Kim, 2002), anticancer (Shin et al., 2012), and anti-asthma (Lee et al., 2010), none have been done with cucumber grass. Therefore, in this study, we examined the quality characteristics of cucumber grass using cookie manufacturing and evaluated the quality of cucumber grass cookies to be used as basic data for the manufacture of cucumber grass products. 수제쿠키
2. Material and Method
2.1. Experimental material The Sanguisorba Officinalis L. was purchased from the Kishan Pharmaceutical Plain located in Misan-RI, Sangnam-myeon, Inje-gun, Gangwon-do, clean the leaves, extract heat water at 85°C, and freeze-dry (PVTFA 10AT, ILSIN, Suwon, Korea), and shredder(I), and A
2.2. Cookies were made by slightly modifying the shortbread cookies manufacturing method, using the same combination as Table 1, and in preliminary experiments, cookies were made by adding 0, 1, 3, and 5% of the flour-based cucumber paste. The measured butter was whipped in a kneader (VM-0008, Dayung, Seoul, Korea), whipped for about one minute (two layers), then creamed with sugar and salt for about five minutes (six layers) to make the sugar melt slightly, then mixed eggs three times from the yolk. Afterward, sifted flour and maple powder was added, kneaded in the refrigerator for 1 hour to a thickness of 5 mm, molded into a 40 mm circular cookie mold, and bake for 12 minutes in an oven (FDO7102, Dayung, Seoul, Korea) adjusted to 170°C and 190°C. The finished cookies were cooled to room temperature for one hour and stored at room temperature in an airtight container.
2.3. The pH and density pH of the dough were measured at room temperature with 5 g of dough and 45 mL of distilled water, sufficiently stirred, and 40 mL of water was added to a 50 mL million, and the density of the dough was obtained from the increased volume and weight of the dough.
2.4. The spread ratio of the spread rate of the spreadability measurement cookie is expressed as the ratio of thickness to the width, using the method in AACC Method 10-52 (1995) to obtain the spreadability index using the following expression, which was used as the average value after five repeated measurements.
2.5. The moisture content of the moisture content measuring cookie was measured three times at 105℃ using an infrared dose-measuring instrument (FD-600, KETT Electric Lab, Japan), and the average value was obtained.
2.6. The chromaticity of the colorimetric cookie was measured using a chromometer (CHROMAMETER CR-200b, Minolta Co., Tokyo, Japan) to represent the mean value as Hunter’s L value, a value, b value, and a standard white plate as 97.75, a value 0.49 and b value.
2.7. Hardness measurements of Texture measurement cookies were repeated three times using Texture Analyzer (Sun Compac100, Sun Scientific Co., Tokyo, Japan) to average values, measuring conditions of 5.0 mm (No. 4), entry distance (depth of entry: 2.0 mm, load)
2.8. A sensory test will train 30 trained college students (15 males and 15 females) on test methods and evaluation characteristics, and then use the 7-point scale (1 point: very disliked, 4-point: normal, 7-point: very good) to show the appearance of cookies, flavor, taste, texture, and overall taste.
2.9. Stat all experiments were repeated more than three times, compared with the mean and standard deviation using Statistical Package for Social Science, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA software, and the significance of the mean was verified at p<0.05 levels using Duncan’s multiple range test.