index of cookies The results of measuring the spreadability

3. index of cookies Results and Considerations

The pH of the dough and density of the dough and pH measurements are as shown in Table 2. The pH of the dough, which affects the flavor and appearance of the cookie, was the highest compared to the cucumber powder additive group at 6.34, but the pH did not vary significantly depending on the amount of the cucumber powder added (Coi, 2009). Low dough density results in a hard cookie, decreasing symbol, and a high dough indicates a brittle property, which reduces merchantability (Cho, Park, Kim, & Kim, 2006). In this work, the density was significantly increased as the amount of cucumber glue powder added increased compared to the cucumber glue powder-free group (p<0.05). Studies on the index of cookie dough with the addition of mulberry powder (Park, Lee, & Shin, 2008) have shown similar results to studies of increasing dough density with increasing amounts of perilla leaf addition (Choi, Oh, & Lee, 2009). The difference in density between the control group and the experimenter is believed to have affected the density due to the added percentage of the cucumber grass powder added. 쿠키

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4. The results of measuring the spreadability of cookies

4.1. The spreadability of cookies is controlled by dough viscosity (Miller, Ho-seney, & Morris, 1997). The results of measuring the spreadability index of cucumber paste-added biscuits are shown in Table 3. Compared to the control group (12.34%), the spreadability index of the cookie decreased significantly from 10.24 to 10.01 with the addition of the cucumber pool. Spreadability occurs until the dough begins to expand due to gravitational fluidity and the dough’s fluidity ceases, which is controlled by dough viscosity because the dough’s gravity is constant. The higher moisture content of the dough or the higher the dryness of the dough during baking is known to reduce the spreadability (Doescher & Hoseney, 1985), similar to the results of experiments in which the addition of cucumber paste. It is generally known that spreadability affects the viscosity, moisture content, and protein content of the dough.

4.2. The results of measuring the moisture content of cookies with cucumber paste powder added are shown in Table 4. The addition of cucumber glue powder showed no constant tendency, but the moisture content of the control group was 2.94% and the addition of cucumber powder was 3.10 to 3.21%. Depending on the amount of cucumber glue powder added, the moisture content of the control group was 2.94% and that of the cucumber glue powder added the group was 3.10 to 3.21%, but there was no significant difference in moisture content (p<0.05). An analysis of the moisture content of biscuits manufactured by adding functional material powders showed similar results (Choi et al., 2014; Moon & Choi, 2014). The moisture-binding capacity of biscuits, which represents moisture and specimen affinity, is usually less than 10%, and the combined moisture is absorbed by or adsorbed on the surface of the specimen particle, which has been reported to increase the water-binding capacity (Park & Cho, 2006).

5. The chromaticity measurement results of cookies

5.1. The chromaticity measurement results of the cookie with cucumber glue powder added are as shown in Table 5. The value of L significantly decreased from 71.21 to 60.31 as the amount of cucumber paste added increased, the value of an increased from 6.24 to 7.01, and the value of b increased from 19.32 to 24.31. The color of the cookie is largely influenced by the added sugar, and by one of the party’s browning reactions, the Maillard reaction by reducing sugar and the caramelization reaction by heat (Ramires-Jimenez, Guerra-Hernán-dez, & García-Villanova, 2000). These reactions are believed to have affected the chromaticity of biscuits by causing reactions by high temperatures in the baking process (Kim, 1995). As the addition of cucumber grass powder increased, biscuits tended to get darker.

5.2. The hardness measurement of biscuits with hard cucumber paste powder is shown in Table 6. As the amount of cucumber glue powder added increased, hardness values tended to increase. Studies of kelp powder biscuits (Cho et al. 2006), ginseng-added pumpkin biscuits (Kim & Park, 2006), bamboo leaf powder (Lee & Oh, 2006), and lotus leaf biscuits (Kim & Park, 2008) showed similar hardness as powder additions increase. This is attributed to the increasing hardness of biscuits by the addition of dry powder to the addition of many additional ingredients.

6. The results of the sensual test

The results of the sensual test cucumber paste-added biscuits are as shown in Table 7 in terms of color, aroma, taste, sense of organization, and overall preference. The color of the cookie was the highest in the 1% cucumber glue powder addition group, and as the addition increased, the taste decreased. The 3% additional group scored the highest in the flavor evaluation, and the lower the addition. For taste, the control group and the 3% addition group showed better results than the others. The addition of the yeast powder does not seem to have much effect on the sense of organization. The assessment of overall preference showed that the 3% additive group had the highest results compared to the control group. the spreadability index of cookies

7. Summary and Conclusion

 Summary and Conclusion In this study, cucumber paste powder was added (0%, 1%, 3%, 5%) to find out the index of cookies using cucumber paste, and the results are as follows. The pH of the dough, which affects the flavor and appearance of the cookie, showed the highest pH of the cucumber-free dough at 6.34, compared to the cucumber powder addition group, but the pH did not differ significantly depending on the cucumber powder addition. If the dough is less dense, the biscuits are hard, which reduces the level of taste, and if they are high, they show easily broken properties, which reduces the commerciality. In this work, the density was significantly increased as the amount of cucumber glue powder added increased compared to the cucumber glue powder-free group (p<0.05). The difference in density between the control group and the experimenter is believed to have affected the density due to the ratio of added cucumber glue powder. The spreadability index of the cookie with cucumber paste added decreased compared to the control group with the spreadability index of the cookie with cucumber paste added decreased. Diffusivity occurs until the dough begins to expand due to gravitational fluidity and the dough’s fluidity ceases, with the dough’s gravity being constant, which is controlled by dough viscosity, and the spread decreases as the amount of cucumber paste powder added increases.

The addition of cucumber glue powder showed no constant tendency, but the moisture content of the control group was 2.94% and the addition of cucumber glue powder was 3.10 to 3.21%, showing an increase and decrease. The chromaticity of cucumber powder-added biscuits decreased with the increase in the amount of cucumber powder added, and values a and b showed the highest value of biscuits with 5% cucumber powder added, indicating that the biscuits tended to darken as the amount of cucumber powder added increased. The hardness of the cookie with the addition of the cucumber powder increased with the addition of many additional ingredients. The results on the color, aroma, taste, texture, and overall taste of the cookie were the highest in the 1% cucumber powder addition group for the color of the cookie, and the higher the addition, the lower the taste. The 3% additional group scored the highest in the flavor evaluation, and the lower the addition. For taste, the control group and the 3% addition group scored better than the others. The addition of the yeast powder does not seem to have much effect on the sense of organization. Overall, the evaluation of the preference achieved the highest score in the 3% additive group compared to the control group. Accordingly, research on the antioxidant activity of cucumber paste-added index of cookies will need to be carried out on 3% of the added groups in the future to conduct research on functionality.